Perry Li's Publications

(Publications by area)

Journal Publications

  1. A. T. Rice, P. Y. Li and C. J. Sancken, "Optimal Efficiency-Power Tradeoff for an Air Compressor/Expander", ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 2017. (To appear).
  2. Ouyang, X., Ding, S., Fan, B., Li, P. Y., & Yang, H. "Development of a novel compact hydraulic power unit for the exoskeleton robot". Mechatronics, 38, 68-75. DOI: 10.1016/j.mechatronics.2016.06.003 2016.
  3. Z. Du, T. Cheng, P. Y. Li, K.L. Cheong and T. R. Chase, "Virtual Vehicle Control Concept for Hydrostatic Dynamometer Control," ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 139(2), [021009], doi: 10.1115/1.4034803.  2016.
  4. P. Y. Li and M. Saadat, "An Approach to Reduce the Flow Requirement for a Liquid Piston Air Compressor/Expander in a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) System," IET Renewable Power Generation. DOI:  10.1049/iet-rpg.2016.0055 2016.
  5. P. Y. Li, "Prototype Angle Domain Repetitive Control - Affine Parameterization Approach", ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. Vol. 137(12), #121009. (Oct. 01, 2015)  doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4031577
  6. B. Yan, J. Wieberdink, F. Shirazi, P. Y. Li, T. W. Simon and J. D. Van de Ven, "Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Liquid Piston Compressor/Expander Using Porous Media Inserts",  Applied Energy Vol.154, Sept 2015 pp. 40-50. DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.106
  7. M. Saadat and P. Y. Li,  "Modeling and Control of an Open Accumulator Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) System for Wind Turbines", Applied Energy. Vol. 137, pp. 603-616, Jan 2015.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.09.085
  8. C. Qin, E. Loth, P. Li, T. Simon, and J. D. Van de Ven, “Spray-cooling concept for Wind-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage”, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy Vol.6 (2014) 043125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4893434
  9. C. Zhang, B. Yan, J. Wierberdink, P. Y. Li, J. D. Van de Ven, E. Loth and T. W. Simon, “Thermal analysis of a compressor for application to compressed air energy storage”, Applied Thermal Energy, Vol. 73:2, pp.1402-1411, Dec 2014.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.08.014
  10. P. Y. Li and M. Wang, "Natural Storage Function for Passivity-Based Trajectory Control of Hydraulic Actuators", ASME/IEEE Transactions on Mechatronics, V19 #3 pp 1057-1068, June, 2014.  DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2013.2266916
  11. Z. Du, K. L. Cheong, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "Energy Management Strategy of a Power-split hydraulic hybrid vehicle based on Lagrange Multiplier and Its Modifications" (under review)
  12. T. P. Sim and P. Y. Li, "Lattice based n-point Time-Sequential Sampling and Two-Stage Process Control for Maintaining Tone Consistency of Xerographic Processes”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol 21, Issue 6, pp. 2024-2037, 2013. [ DOI: 10.1109/TCST.2012.2237031 ].
  13. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, “Passive Decomposition of Multiple Mechanical Systems under Coordination Requirements”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol. 58:1, pp.230-235, Jan 2013.
  14. H. Tu,  M. B. Rannow, M. Wang, P. Y. Li, and T. R. Chase, “Design, Modeling and Validation of a High-Speed Rotary PWM On/Off Valve for Use in Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps”,  ASME Journal of Dynamics Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol. 134-6, #061002, Nov, 2012.
  15. M. Rannow and P. Y. Li, “Soft Switching Approach to Reducing Transition Losses in an On/Off Hydraulic Valve", ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol. 134-6, #064501, Nov, 2012.
  16. J. Van de Ven and P. Y. Li, "Liquid Piston Gas Compression", Applied Energy, Vol. 86, Issue 10, pp. 2183-2191, October, 2009.
  17. J. Purjura, M.A. Siddiqui, Z. Liu, P. Bjegovic, S.S. Takagaki, P. Y. Li and S. Ramaswamy, "Method to Characterize the Air Flow and Water Removal Characteristics during Vacuum Dewatering, Part I - Experimental Method", Drying Technology, v26, n 3, p 334-340, 2008.
  18. J. Purjura, M.A. Siddiqui, Z. Liu, P. Bjegovic, S.S. Takagaki, P. Y. Li and S. Ramaswamy, "Method to Characterize the Air Flow and Water Removal Characteristics during Vacuum Dewatering, Part II - Analysis and Characterization", Drying Technology, v26, n 3, p 341-348, 2008.
  19. P. Y. Li,  “Passive Control of a Hydraulic Human Power Amplifier - A Virtual Coordination Approach” (under review)
  20. M. Rannow, H. Tu, P.Y. Li, T. R. Chase and Y. Li, “Software enabled variable displacement pumps – Modeling and Experiments”  (under review)
  21. K. Krishnaswamy and P. Y. Li, Bond Graph Based Approach To Passive Teleoperation Of A Hydraulic Backhoe
      ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. Special Issue on Novel Robotics. Vol. 128, pp.176--185, March, 2006.
  22. T. P. Sim, P. Y. Li and D. J. Lee, Using Time-sequential sampling to stabilize the tone and color reproduction functions of a xerographic printing process
    IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology. Vol 15, Issue 2, pp 349-357, 2007.
  23. Q.-H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, Robust Optimal Design of Unstable Valves
      IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology. Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 1065-1074, November, 2007
  24. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Passive Decomposition Approach to Formation and Maneuver Control of Multiple Rigid-Bodies
    ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. Vol. 129, pp. 662-677, September, 2007.
  25. Q.-H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, Using Steady Flow Force for Unstable Valve Design: Modeling and Experiments
      ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. Vol 127, No. 3. pp. 451--462, 2005.
  26. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Passive bilateral control and Tool Dynamics Rendering for Nonlinear Mechanical Teleoperators  IEEE Transactions on Robotics, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp. 936—951, Oct. 2005
  27. Saber, E; Dianat, S; Mestha, L.K., and Li, P. Y., “DSP Utilization in digital color printing”, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Volume 22, No. 4, pp. 104—109, July 2005.
  28. P. Y. Li and K. Krishnaswamy, Passive Bilateral Teleoperation of a Hydraulic Actuator Using an Electrohydraulic Passive Valve
    International Journal of Fluid Power, 13th Issue, pp. 43--56, August 2004.
  29. P. Y. Li and R. F. Ngwompo, Power Scaling Bondgraph Approach to the Passification of Mechatronic Systems - with Application to  Electrohydraulic Valves
    ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol. 127, No. 4., pp. 633-641, Dec. 2005,
  30. S. Saimek and P. Y. Li, Motion Planning and Control of a Swimming Machine

    International Journal of Robotics Research Vol 23, Issue 1, pp. 27-54, January 2004

  31. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Passive Bilateral Feedforward Control of Linear Dynamically Similar Teleoperated Manipulators
    IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp.443-456, June 2003.
  32. P. Y. Li, P. Bjegovic and S. Ramaswamy, Preemptive control of moisture content using surrogate measurements in paper manufacturing
      Transactions of the Institute of Measurements and Control (UK) Vol Vol. 25, issue 1, pp. 36-56, 2003.
  33. P. Y. Li, Dynamic Redesign of a Flow Control Servo-valve using a Pressure Control Pilot
      ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. Vol. 124 No. 3, Sept 2002.
  34. R. T. Anderson and P. Y. Li, Mathematical Modeling of a Two-spool Flow Control Servovalve Using a Pressure Control Pilot
      ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control Vol 124 No. 3, Sept 2002.
  35. K. Krishnaswamy and P. Y. Li, On using unstable hydraulic valves for control
      ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. Vol 124, No. 1, pp. 182-190, March, 2002.
  36. P. Y. Li and A. Shrivastava, Traffic flow stability induced by constant time headway policy for adaptive cruise control (ACC) vehicles
      Transportation Research - Part C: Emerging Technologies. Vol 10 (3), Sept. 2002.
  37. P. Y. Li and S. Dianat , Robust Stabilization of Tone Reproduction Curves for the Xerographic Process
      IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology. Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 407-415, March 2001.
  38. R. Horowitz, P. Y. Li and J. F. Shields, Self-optimizing exercise machines
      Annual Reviews in Control Vol. 24 pp. 201-213, 2000.
  39. P. Y. Li, Towards safe and human friendly hydraulics: the passive valve
      ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control. Vol. 122, No. 3, pp. 402-409, Sept. 2000
  40. L. Alvarez, P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, "Traffic Flow Control in Automated Highway Systems,"
      Control Engineering Practice. Vol. 7, No. 9, pp. 1071-1078, Sept. 1999
  41. P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Passive Velocity Field Control, Part 1: Geometry and Robustness
      IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control. Vol. 46, No. 9, pp.1346-1359, Sept. 2001.
  42. P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Passive Velocity Field Control, Part 2: Application to contour following problems
      IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control. Vol. 46, No. 9, pp.1360-1371, Sept. 2001.
  43. P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Control of Smart Exercise Machines. Part 1: Problem Formulation and Non-Adaptive Control [ps.gz]
      IEEE/ASME Transaction on Mechatronics. Special Issue on Human Friendly Mechatronics, Vol 2 No 4 pp 237-247, Dec 1997.
  44. P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Control of Smart Exercise Machines. Part 2: Self-Optimizing Control [ps.gz]
      IEEE/ASME Transaction on Mechatronics. Special Issue on Human Friendly Mechatronics, Vol 2 No 4 pp 248-258, Dec 1997.
  45. P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Passive Velocity Field Control of Mechanical Manipulators
      IEEE Transaction on Robotics and Automation. Vol 15 No 4, pages 751-763, 1999
  46. P. Y. Li, L. Alvarez, and R. Horowitz, AVHS Safe Control Laws for Platoon Leaders
      IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol.5 Number 6, pp.614-628, 1997.
  47. P. Y. Li, R. Horowitz, L. Alvarez and A. M. Robertson, An Automated Highway System Link Layer Controller for Traffic Flow Stabilization
      Transportation Research, Part C (Emerging Technologies), Vol.5C No.1 pp11-37, 1997.
  48. J. Frankel, L. Alvarez, R. Horowitz, and P. Y. Li, Safety Orient Maneuvers for IVHS
      Vehicle Systems Dynamics Vol 26, No4 pp271-299, Oct. 1996.
  49. H. Kostyra, P. Y. Li, S. Endo and M. Tomizuka, Model Reference Adaptive Control of a Redundant Manipulator Performing a Complete Task
      Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik, Vol. 74 No.4, 1994.
  50. P. Y. Li and Z. Ladin, Mathematical Modeling of the Effect of Sole Elasticity Distribution on Pronation
      Journal of Biomechanics, Vol 25 No. 5 pp 501-510, 1992.
  51. P. Lum, D. J. Reinkensmeyer, S. L. Lehman, P. Y. Li and L. Stark, Feedforward Stabilization in a Bimanual Unloading Task
      Experimental Brain Research Vol 89, N1 pp172-180, 1992.

 

Book chapters

  1.  P. Y. Li, E. Loth, C. Qin, T. W. Simon and J. D. Van de Ven, "Open accumulator isothermal compressed air energy storage (OA-ICAES) System",  Energy Storage Handbook, eds. A. Hauer and S. Bauer, Wiley, 2017.
  2. C. Groepper, P. Y. Li, T. Cui and K. A. Stelson, "MEMS Pressure-Flow-Temperature (PQT) Sensor for Hydraulic Systems," in Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices II, Eds. D. Zhang and B. Wei, Springer International Publishing, 2016.

Conference Proceedings

  1. P. Y. Li, "Angle-Domain Internal Model Control Via a Time-Varying Kalman Filter", 2017 American Control Conference, Seattle, WA, May 2017.
  2. S.Y. Lee and P. Y. Li, "A Hardware-In-The-Loop (HIL) Testbed for Hydraulic Transformer Research", 15th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power (SICFP), Linkoping, Sweden, June 2017.
  3. Zhang, C., Li, P., Van de Ven, J., and Simon, T., 2017, Oscillatory flow regenerative heat exchangers for application to energy storage systems, TFEC-IWHT2017-17911, 4th Int’l. Workshop on Heat Transfer, Las Vegas, NV.
  4. A. Srivatsa and P. Y. Li, "Effect of Moisture On the Efficiency and Power Density of a Liquid Piston Air Compressor/Expander", ASME DSC Conference [DSCC2016-9884], Minneapolis, MN October, 2016.
  5. M. Saadat, A. Srivatsa, P. Y. Li and T. W. Simon, "Air Compression Performance Improvement Via Trajectory Optimization: Experimental Validation", ASME DSC Conference [DSCC2016-9825], Minneapolis, MN, October, 2016.
  6. S. Lee, P. Y. Li and F. Eskilsson, "Multi degree-of-freedom hydraulic human power amplifier with rendering of assistive dynamics", ASME DSC Conference [DSCC2016-9781], Minneapolis, October, 2016.
  7. M. B. Rannow, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "Discrete Piston Pump/Motor Using a Mechanical Rotary Valve Control Mechanism", Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Digital Fluid Power (DFP16),  Tampere, Finland, May 24-25, 2016.
  8. Shi, H., & Li, P. Y. (2016). Coordination control of a 3 DOF distributed human assistive load lifting system with force amplification. In Proceedings of the 2016 12th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, WCICA 2016 (Vol. 2016-September, pp. 1359-1365). [7578803] Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. DOI: 10.1109/WCICA.2016.7578803
  9. M. Saadat and P. Y. Li, "Combined Optimal Design and Control of a Near-isothermal Liquid Piston Air Compressor/Expander for a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) System for Wind Turbines", 2015 ASME-DSCC, Columbus, OH., October, 2015. [Finalist for the Best Energy Systems paper Award].
  10.  P. Y. Li, "Angle Domain Repetitive Control: Design and Robustness", 2015 ASME-DSCC, Columbus, OH., October, 2015.
  11. S. Lee and P. Y. Li, "Passive Control of a Hydraulic Human Power Amplifier Using a Hydraulic Transformer", 2015 ASME-DSCC, Columbus, OH., October, 2015.
  12. S. Lee and P. Y. Li, "Passivity Based Backstepping Control for Trajectory Tracking Using a Hydraulic Transformer", ASME/Bath 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control (FPMC), October 12, 2015. doi: 10.1115/FPMC2015-9618
  13. L. Huang, T. W. Simon, P. Y. Li and E. J. Hummelt, "Analysis of dissolved gas in the application of liquid piston gas compression", Proceedings of the 1st Thermal and Fluid Engineering Summer Conference, New York City, NY, August, 2015.
  14. P. Y. Li and M. Saadat, "An approach to reduce the flow requirement for a liquid piston air compressor/expander in a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system",  2nd Offshore Energy and Storage Symposium (OSES), Edinburgh, U.K., July 2015.
  15. Y. Xiao, C. Guan, P. Y. Li and F. Wang, "Optimal design of a compound hybrid system consists of torque coupling and energy regeneration for hydraulic hybrid excavator", 2015 IEEE/ASME Internation Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM), Busan, Korea, July, 2015.
  16. C. Zhang, P. Y. Li, J. D. Van de Ven, and T. W. Simon, "Design analysis of a liquid-piston compression chamber with application to compressed air energy storage", ASME-AIT-UIT 2015 Conference on Thermal Energy Systems: Production, Storage, Utilizatoion and the Environment, Napoli, Italy, May 2015.
  17. F. Shirazi, P. Gagnon, P. Y. Li and J.D Van de Ven, “Design, modeling and control of a lab- scale compressed air energy storage (CAES) testbed for wind turbines with simulated input and demand power variability”, ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, San Antonio, TX, Nov. 2014.
  18. Z. Du, K. L. Cheong, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, “Design and Experimental Validation of a Virtual Vehicle Control Concept for Testing Hybrid Vehicles Using a Hydrostatic Dynamometer”, ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, San Antonio, TX, Nov. 2014. 
  19. C. Zhang, J. Wieberdink, T. W. Simon, P. Y. Li, J. D. Van de Ven and E. Loth, "Numerical analysis of heat exchangers used in a liquid piston compressor using a one-dimensional model with an embedded two-dimensional submodel", ASME-IMECE #2014-38567, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Nov. 2014.
  20. C. Zhang, T. W. Simon, P. Y. Li and J. Van de Ven, ``Numerical Modeling of Three Dimensional Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Through Interrupted Plates using Unit Cell Scale", 15th International Heat Transfer Conference (IHTC-15), August, 2014. Kyoto, Japan.
  21. S. Lee and P. Y. Li, "Trajectory Tracking Control Using a Hydraulic Transformer", 2014 International Symposium on Flexible Automation, Awaji Island, Japan, July 2014.
  22. K. L. Cheong, Z. Du, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "Hierarchical Control Strategy for a Hybrid Hydro-mechanical Transmission (HMT) Power-Train", 2014 American Control Conference, Portland OR, June 2014.
  23. M. Saadat, F. Shirazi and P. Y. Li, "Revenue Maximiation of Electricity Generation for a Wind Turbine Integrated with a Compressed Air Energy Storage System", 2014 American Control Conference, Portland OR, June 2014
  24. Mohsen Saadat, Farzad Shirazi and Perry Y. Li,  "NONLINEAR CONTROLLER DESIGN WITH BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATION FOR A NOVEL COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM". 2013 ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Conference. Palo Alto, CA, Oct 2013.
  25. C. Zhang, J. Wieberdink, F. Shirazi, B. Yan, T. W. Simon and P. Y. Li. "Numerical Investigation of Metal-foam filled liquid piston compressor using a two-energy equation formulation based on experimentally validated model", ASME-IMECE-2013 #63854, San Diego, CA, Nov. 2013.
  26. C. Zhang, T. W. Simon and P. Y. Li, "Optimization of the axial porosity distribution of porous inserts in a liquid piston gas compressor using a one-dimensional formulation", ASME-IMECE-2013 #63862, San Diego, CA, Nov. 2013.
  27. C. Zhang, B. Yan, J. Wierberdink, P. Y. Li, J. D. Van de Ven, E. Loth and T. W. Simon, “Thermal analysis of a compressor for application to compressed air energy storage”, Proceedings of the IWHT2013 2nd International Workshop on Heat Transfer Advances for Energy Conservation and Pollution Control, October, 2013, Xi'an China.
  28. Chao Zhang, Farzad Shirazi, Bo Yan, Terry W. Simon, Perry Y. Li and James D. Van de Ven (2013). DESIGN OF AN INTERRUPTED PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER USED IN A LIQUID PISTON COMPRESSION CHAMBER FOR COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE. ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference. Minneapolis, MN.
  29. M. Saadat, F. Shirazi and P. Y. Li, "Optimal Trajectories of Water Spray for a Liquid Piston Air Compressor", ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference HT2013-17611, Minneapolis, MN, July 2013.
  30. F. Shirazi, M. Saadat, B. Yan, P. Y. Li and T. W. Simon, "Optimal Control Experimentation of Compression Trajectories for a Liquid Piston Air Compressor",
    ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference HT2013-17613, Minneapolis, MN, July 2013.
  31. F. Shirazi, M. Saadat, B. Yan, P.Y. Li and T. W. Simon, "Iterative Optimal and Adaptive Control of a Near Isothermal Liquid Piston Air Compressor in a Compressed Air Energy Storage System", 2013 American Control Conference, Washington D.C., June 2013.
  32. Z. Du, K. L. Cheong, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "Fuel Economy Comparisons of Series, Parallel and HMT Hydraulic Hybrid Architectures", 2013 American Control Conference, Washington D.C., June 2013.
  33. V. Durbha and P. Li, " Storage Function for Passivity Analysis of Pneumatic Actuators With Finite Heat Transfer in Human-Interactive Systems", ASME DSC Conference, [DSCC2012-MOVIC2012-8753], Ft. Lauderdale, Nov. 2012.
  34. D. Berg and P. Y. Li, "Achieving Dexterous Manipulation for Minimally Invasive Surgical Robots Through the Use of Hydraulics", ASME DSC Conference, [DSCC2012-MOVIC2012-8685], Ft. Lauderdale, Nov. 2012.
  35. M. Wang and P. Y. Li, "Displacement Control of Hydraulic Actuators Using a Passivity Based Nonlinear Controller", ASME DSC Conference, [DSCC2012-MOVIC2012-8784], Ft. Lauderdale, Nov. 2012.
  36. C. Zhang, M. Saadat, P. Y. Li and T.W. Simon, "Heat Transfer in a Long, Thin Tube Section of an Air Compressor: An Empirical Correlation from CFD and a Thermodynamic Modeling", ASME IMECE, Paper #86673, Houston TX, November, 2012.
  37.  C. Zhang, T. W. Simon and P. Y. Li, "Storage Power and Efficiency Analysis Based on CFD for Air Compressors used for Compressed Air Energy Storage", ASME IMECE, Paper #88985 Houston TX, November, 2012.
  38. M. Saadat and P. Y. Li, "Modeling and Control of a Novel Compressed Air Energy Storage System for Offshore Wind Turbine", 2012 American Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, June 2012.
  39. M. Saadat, P. Y. Li and T. W. Simon, "Optimal Trajectories for a Liquid Piston Compressor/Expander in a Compressed Air Energy Storage System with Consideration of Heat Transfer and Friction", 2012 American Control Conference, Montreal, Canada, June 2012.
  40. V. Durbha and P. Y. Li, "A nonlinear spring model of hydraulic actuator for passive controller design in bilateral teleoperation", 2012 American Control Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 2012.
  41. M. Wang and P. Y. Li, "Passivity based adaptive control of a two chamber hydraulic actuator", 2012 American Control Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 2012.
  42. P. Y. Li and M. Wang, "Passivity based nonlinear control of hydraulic actuators based on an Euler-Lagrange Formulation", ASME DSCC 2011/Bath Symposium on PTMC, Arlington, VA, October, 2011.
  43. H. Tu, M. B. Rannow, M. Wang, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "High-speed 4 way rotary on/off valve for virtually variable displacement pump/motor applications", ASME DSCC 2011/Bath Symposium on PTMC, Arlington, VA, October, 2011.
  44. A. T. Rice and P. Y. Li, "Optimal Efficiency-Power Tradeoff for an Air Motor/Compressor with Volume Varying Heat Transfer Capability", ASME DSCC 2011/Bath Symposium on PTMC, Arlington, VA, October, 2011.
  45. T. P. Sim and P. Y. Li, "Wavelet Analysis and Modeling of Time-varying TRCs" (Pre-print) Proceedings of the 27th Non-Impact Printing (NIP) Conference, Minneapolis, MN, September, 2011.
  46. K. L. Cheong, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "Optimal Design of Power-Split Transmission for Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicles", 2011 American Control Conference, pp.3295-3300, San Franscisco, CA, June, 2011.
  47. H. Tu, M. B. Rannow, M. Wang, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "The Advantages and Feasibility of Externally Actuating a High-speed Rotary On/Off Valve", 2011 International Fluid Power Exhibition (IFPE), Paper number: 20.3, Las Vegas, NV, March, 2011.
  48. M. Wang, P. Y. Li, H. Tu, M. Rannow and T. R. Chase, "Direct Displacement Control of Hydraulic Actuators Based on a Self-Spinning Rotary On/Off Valve", 2011 International Fluid Power Exhibition (IFPE), Paper number: 20.2, Las Vegas, NV, March, 2011.
  49. K. L. Cheong, P. Y. Li, S. Sedler and T. R. Chase, "Comparison between input coupled and output coupled power-split configurations in hybrid vehicles", 2011 International Fluid Power Exhibition (IFPE), Paper number:10.2, Las Vegas, NV, March, 2011.
  50. F. Mensing and P. Y. Li, "Sizing and Optimal Operation of a Power Split Hydraulic Hybrid Drive Train", 2011 International Fluid Power Exhibition (IFPE), Las Vegas, NV, March, 2011.
  51. P. Y. Li, E. Loth, T. W. Simon, J. D. Van de Ven, and Stephen E. Crane, "Compressed Air Energy Storage for Offshore Wind Turbines", 2011 International Fluid Power Exhibition (IFPE), Las Vegas, NV, March, 2011.
  52. K. L. Cheong, P. Y. Li and J. Xia, “Control Oriented Modeling and System Identification of a Diesel Generator Set (Genset)”,  2010 American Control Conference, Baltimore MD, June 2010.
  53. V. Durbha and P. Y. Li, “Independent Metering of Pneumatic Actuator for Passive Human Power Amplication”, Proceedings of the 2010 American Control Conference, Baltimore MD, June 2010.
  54. Wang M. Tu H. Rannow M. Li P Y. Chase T R. "CFD Analysis of a Novel High Speed Rotary ON/Off Valve", Proc. of 6th FPNI-PhD Symp.  pp. 283-294, West Lafayette, IN, June, 2010
  55. Durbha V. and Li P. Y., "Passive Tele-operation of Pneumatic Powered Robotic Rescue Crawler", Proc. of 6th FPNI-PhD Symp.  pp. 451-466, West Lafayette, IN, June, 2010
  56. P. Y. Li* and F. Mensing, “Optimization and Control of a Hydro-Mechanical Transmission based Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicle”, Proceedings of the 7th International Fluid Power Conference, Aachen, Germany, March 2010.
  57. M. Rannow, H. Tu, M. Wang, P. Y. Li* and T. Chase, “Optimal Design of a High-Speed On/off Valve for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Application”, Proceedings of the 7th International Fluid Power Conference, Aachen, Germany, March 2010.
  58. H. Tu, M. Rannow, M. Wang, P. Y. Li, and T. R. Chase, "Modeling and Validation of a High Speed Rotary PWM On/Off Valve", Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference #2763, DSCC2009/Bath Symposium PTMC, Hollywood, 2009.
  59. M. Rannow and P. Y. Li, "Soft Switching Approach to Reducing Transition Losses in an On/Off Hydraulic Valve", Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference #2617, DSCC2009/Bath Symposium PTMC, Hollywood, 2009.
  60. C. Sancken and P. Y. Li, "Optimal Efficiency-Power Relationship for an Air Motor-Compressor in an Energy Storage and Regeneration System", Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference #2749, DSCC2009/Bath Symposium PTMC, Hollywood, 2009.
  61. T. P. Sim and P. Y. Li, "Analysis and Control Design of a Hydro-Mechanical Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicle", Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference #2763, DSCC2009/Bath Symposium PTMC, Hollywood, 2009.
  62. V. Durbha and P. Y. Li, "Passive Bilateral Tele-Operation and Human Power Amplification With Pneumatic Actuators", Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference #2751, DSCC2009/Bath Symposium PTMC, Hollywood, 2009.
  63. Z. Liu and P. Y. Li, "Adaptive Calibration and Control of Cascade Processes With Unknown Measurement Model and Actuator Dynamics and Its Application to Paper Manufacturing", Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Dynamic Systems and Control Conference #2625, DSCC2009/Bath Symposium PTMC, Hollywood, 2009.
  64. T. P. Sim and P. Y. Li, "Determination of Significant Color Map", Proceedings of the 25th Confererence on Non-impact Printing (NIP 25), Louisville, KY, 2009.
  65. T. P. Sim and P. Y. Li, "Direct Color Consistency Control for Xerographic Printing", Proceedings of the 25th Confererence on Non-impact Printing (NIP 25), Louisville, KY, 2009.
  66. R. Wang and P. Y. Li, "Duty Ratio Control of a Rotary PWM valve with Periodic Measurement Error", Proceedings of the 2009 American Control Conference, St. Louis, MO, 2009. (Best presentation in session)
  67. P. Y. Li and V. Durbha, "Passive control of fluid powered human power amplifiers", Proceedings of the 7th JFPS International Symposium on Fluid Power, Toyama, Japan, September, 2008..
  68. T.P. Sim and P. Y. Li, "On Coordination and Stabilization of Two Xerographic Printers", Proceedings of the 2008 American Control Conference, pp 1546-1551, June, 2008. (Best presentation in session)
  69. M. Wang, and P. Y. Li, "Event Based Kalman Filter Observer For Rotary High Speed On/Off Valve", Proceedings of the 2008 American Control Conference, pp 1546-1551, June, 2008.
  70. J. Van de Ven, M. W. Olson and P. Y. Li, "Development of a Hydro-Mechanical Hydraulic Hybrid Drive Train with Independent Wheel Torque Control for an Urban Passenger Vehicle", IFPE 2008, Las Vegas, March, 2008.
  71. P. Y. Li, J. D. Van de Ven and C. Sancken, "Open Accumulator Concept for Compact Fluid Power Energy Storage", ASME-IMECE 2007-42580, Seattle, WA, November, 2007.
  72. M. B. Rannow and P. Y. Li, "On/Off Valve Based Position Control of a Hydraulic Cylinder", ASME-IMECE 2007-42590, Seattle, WA, November, 2007.
  73. H. Tu*, M. B. Rannow, J. D. Van de Ven, M. Wang, P. Y. Li and T. R. Chase, "High Speed Rotary Pulse Width Modulated On/Off Valve", ASME-IMECE 2007-42559, Seattle, WA, November, 2007.
  74. M. Rannow*, H. Tu, P.Y. Li and T.R. Chase, “Software Enabled Variable Displacement Pumps – Experimental Studies,” ASME IMECE2006-14973, Chicago, IL, November 2006.
  75. P.Y. Li, “A New Passive Control for Hydraulic Human Power Amplifier,” ASME IMECE2006-15056, Chicago, IL, November 2006.
  76. C. Groepper, T. Cui, P.Y. Li* and K.A. Stelson, “Fabrication of Integrated Pressure-Flow-Temperature Sensor for Hydraulic Systems,” ASME IMECE2006-13211, Chicago, IL, November 2006.
  77. C. Groepper, T. Cui, P.Y. Li and K.A. Stelson*, “Design of Integrated Pressure Flow and Temperature Sensor for Hydraulic Systems,” In Proceedings of the Bath Workshop for Power Transmission and Motion Control (PTMC). N. Johnston and K.A. Edge, Eds., Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd., London. pp. 321-334, September 2006.
  78. T.P. Sim* and P.Y. Li, “Optimal Time Sequential Sampling of Tone/Color Reproduction Functions,” 2006 American Control Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 2006.
  79. Q.H. Yuan* and P.Y. Li, “Extension of Robust Design of Unstable Valve: Diagonally Structured Uncertainty,” 2006 American Control Conference, Minneapolis, MN, June 2006.
  80. Q.H. Yuan and P.Y. Li, “On Self-Sensing Actuators: Comparison of Boxcar Window and Kalman Filter Approahes,” ASME-IMECE, #IMECE2005-80284, Fluid Power Systems and Technology Division, Orlando, FL, November 2005.
  81. Sim, T.P. and Li, P.Y. Optimal Time Sequential Sampling of Tone Reproduction Function Proceedings of the 2006 American Control Conference, Minneapolis, June 2006.
  82. Yuan, Q. and Li, P. Y. Extension of robust design of unstable valve: diagonally structured uncertainty, Proceedings of the 2006 American Control Conference, Minneapolis, June 2006.
  83. Durfee, W.K, Li, P.Y. and Waletzko, D. At-home Systems and Controls Laboratory (pdf for talk) Proceedings of the ASME-IMECE, #IMECE2005-82566, Dynamic Systems and Control Division, Orlando, FL, Nov. 2005 . Also in American Society of Engineering Educators Conference, June 2005. (poster)
  84. Li, P.Y., Li, C. Y, Chase, T. R., Software Enabled Variable Displacement Pumps Proceedings of the ASME-IMECE, #IMECE2005-81376, Fluid Power Systems and Technology Division, Orlando, FL, Nov. 2005
  85. Groepper, C., Cui, T.-H., Li, P.Y., and Stelson, K.A, Integrated Pressure-Flow-Temperature Sensor for Hydraulic Systems Proceedings of the ASME-IMECE, #IMECE2005-82002, Fluid Power Systems and Technology Division, Orlando, FL, Nov. 2005
  86. Durfee, D.K, Li, P.Y, and Waletzko, D., "At-home system and controls laboratories", Proceedings of the 2005 American Society of Engineering Educators Conference., 2005.
  87. Yuan Q. and Li P. Y., Energy-saving control of an unstable valve with a MR brake, Proceedings of the 2005 American Control Conference, Portlan OR, June 2005
  88. Li, P. Y. and Q.-H. Yuan, Flux Observer for Spool Displacement Sensing in Self-Sensing Push-Pull Solenoids Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Fluid Power Transmission and Control (ICFP), pp. 772-776. Hangzhou, China. March, 2005
  89. Dongjun Lee; Li, P.Y., Passive decomposition of multiple mechanical systems under coordination requirements 43rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 2004. CDC. Volume 2,  14-17 Dec. 2004 Page(s):1240 - 1245 Vol.2
  90. Q.- H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, Self-sensing actuators in electrohydraulic valve Proceeding of the 2005 ASME-IMECE, Anaheim, CA.  Paper # 62104, November, 2004.
  91. Q.- H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, Self-calibration of push-pull solenoid actuators in electrohydraulic valves, Proceeding of the 2005 ASME-IMECE, Anaheim, CA.  Paper # 62109, November, 2004.
  92. P. Y. Li, Design and control of a hydraulic human power amplifier, (Revised 7/06/05) Proceeding of the 2005 ASME-IMECE, Anaheim, CA.  Paper # 60868, November, 2004
  93. K. Krishnaswamy and P. Y. Li, Bondgraph based approach to passive teleoperation of a hydraulic backhoe, Proceeding of the 2005 ASME-IMECE, Anaheim, CA.  Paper # 61244, November, 2004.
  94. T. P. Sim and P. Y. Li, Color Reproduction stabilization with Time-sequential Sampling, Proceedings of 20th Conference on Non-impact Printing (NIP 20), Salt Lake City, UT, October, 2004.
  95. T. P. Sim and P. Y. Li, Representation of primary color tone reproduction curves and their stabilization,  Proceedings of 20th Conference on Non-impact Printing (NIP 20), Salt Lake City, UT, October, 2004.
  96. P. Y. Li, T.-P. Sim and D.J. Lee, Time sequential Sampling and Reconstruction of Tone and Color Reproduction Functions for Xerographic Printing, Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference, Boston , June 2004.
  97. W. K. Durfee, P. Y. Li and D. Walezko, Take-home lab kits for system dynamics and controls courses, Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference (Interactive session), Boston, June 2004.
  98. Z. Liu and P. Y. Li, Adaptive calibration of surrogate measurements and its application to the control of moisture content in paper manufacturing, Proceedings of the 2004 American Control Conference, Boston , June 2004.
  99. Q.-H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, Optimal and Robust Design of Unstable Valves, 2004 American Control Conference, Boston , June 2004.
  100. K. Krishnaswamy and P. Y. Li, Passive teleoperation of a multi DOF hydraulic backhoe using dynamic passive valve, Proceedings of the ASME-IMECE, Fluid Power Systems and Technology Division, paper IMECE2003-43719, Arlington VA. , November, 2003.
  101. Q. H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, Modeling and Experimental Study on the Fluid Flow Forces for the Design of Unstable Valves, Proceedings of the ASME-IMECE, Fluid Power Systems and Technology Division, Arlington VA. , November, 2003.
  102. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Formation and Maneuver Control of Multiple Spacecraft 2003 American Control Conference, Denver , June 2003.
  103. S. Swaminathan and P. Y. Li, Traffic Flow Stability Induced by Arbitrary Adaptive Cruise Control Policies
    2003 American Control Conference, Denver , June 2003.
  104. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Towards Robust Passivity: A Passive Control Implementation Structure for Mechanical Teleoperators
    2003 11th Haptics and Teleoperator Symposium, IEEE VR 2003, Los Angeles , March 2003
  105. K. Krishnaswamy* and P.Y. Li, “Single Degree of Freedom Passive Hydraulic Teleoperation Using a Passified Two-Stage Servo-Valve," 2nd IFAC Conference on Mechatronic Systems, Berkeley, CA, December 2002.
  106. Q. H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, Using Viscosity to Improve Spool Agility
    2002 Bath Workshop on Power Transmission and Motion Control (PTMC), Bath , U.K., Sept.11-13, 2002.
  107. P. Y. Li and R. F. Ngwompo, Passification of an electrohydraulic valve using bond graphs
    2002 IFAC World Congress, Barcelona , Spain . July 2002.
  108. P. Bjegovic and P. Y. Li, Adaptive pre-emptive control of vacuum dewatering in paper manufacturing
    2002 IFAC World Congress, Barcelon , Spain . July 2002.
  109. K. Krishnaswamy and P. Y. Li, Passification of a Two-Stage Pressure Control Valve
    2001 American Control Conference, Anchorage , Alaska May 2002.
  110. Q. H. Yuan and P. Y. Li, An Experimental Study on the Use of Unstable Electrohydraulic Valves for Control
    2001 American Control Conference, Anchorage , Alaska May 2002.
  111. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Passive Coordination Control for Nonlinear Bilateral Teleoperated Manipulator ,
    IEEE International Conference for Robotics and Automation. Washington D.C. April, 2002.
  112. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Passive Tool Dynamics Rendering for Nonlinear Bilateral Teleoperated Manipulator ,
    IEEE International Conference for Robotics and Automation. Washington D.C. April, 2002.
  113. P. Y. Li and K. Krishnaswamy, Towards Human Friendly Hydraulics - Passive Teleoperation of Hydraulic Equipment using a Force Feedback Joystick  Joint 2002 IFPE / SAE Congress. Las Vegas , NV , March 2002. Also in SAE Transactions - Journal of Commercial Vehicles, pp495-505, 2003.
  114. P. Y. Li, P. Bjegovic and S. Ramaswamy , Preemptive control of multiply actuated processes: application to moisture content control in paper manufacturing using surrogate measurements Proceedings 2001 ASME IMECE - Vol. DSC. New York , Nov. 2001.
  115. P. Y. Li, Dynamic Redesign of a Flow Control Valve using a Pressure Control Pilot Proceedings 2001 ASME IMECE - Vol. DSC. New York , Nov. 2001.
  116. D. J. Lee and P. Y. Li, Passive Control of Bilateral Teleoperated Manipulators: Robust control and experiments
    Proceedings of the 2001 American Control Conference, Arlington VA , June 2001.
  117. P. Y. Li and K. Krishnaswamy, Passive Control of an Electrohydraulic Actuator Using an Electrohydraulic Passive Valve
    Proceedings of the 2001 American Control Conference, Arlington VA , June 2001.
  118. S. Saimek and P. Y. Li, Motion planning and control of a Swimming Machine
    Proceedings of the 2001 American Control Conference, Arlington VA , June 2001
  119. P. Y. Li and D. J. Lee, Passive Feedforward Approach to the Control of Bilateral Teleoperated Manipulators
    Proceedings of the Symposium on Haptic Interfaces and Teleoperators, at the ASME IMECE, Orlando FL. Nov. 2000.
  120. R. T. Anderson and P. Y. Li, Mathematical Modeling of an Unconventional Flow Control Servo-valve
    Symposium on Electrohydraulics Systems Modeling and Control at the ASME IMECEC Orlando, FL Nov. 2000.
  121. C. Zhong and P. Y. Li, Bayesian Network Modeling of a Xerographic Printing System
    Symposium on Imaging and Motion at the ASME IMECE, Orlando, FL Nov. 2000.
  122. P. Y. Li, Robust Control and Diagnostic Strategies for Xerographic Printing
    Proceedings of the Imaging Science and Technology (IS&T)'s NIP-16: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies. pp.261-266, Vancouver , Canada Oct. 2000. (Presentation)
  123. J. Li and P. Y. Li, Passive Velocity Field Control (PVFC) approach to robot force control and contour folllowing
    2000 Japan-USA Symposium on Flexible Automation - Ann Arbor , MI , July 2000.
  124. C. Chen, P. Y. Li and A. G. Erdman, Design and Analysis of a 4 DOF hybrid spherical scanning apparatus
    ASME 2000 Design Engineering Technical Conference - Baltimore, MD Sept. 2000
  125. P. Y. Li, Passivity properties and passification of electrohydraulic servo valves
    American Control Conference, Chicago June, 2000
  126. A. Shrivastava and P. Y. Li, Traffic Flow Stability Induced by Constant Time Headway Policy for Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Vehicles
    American Control Conference, Chicago , June 2000
  127. K. Krishnaswamy and P. Y. Li, On Using unstable electrohydraulic valves for control
    American Control Conference, Chicago , June 2000
  128. P. Y. Li and S. Saimek , Modeling and Estimation of Hydrodynamic Potentials
    Proceedings of the 38th IEEE CDC, 1999
  129. P. Y. Li, Coordinated Contour Following Control for Machining Processes - A Survey
    Proceedings of the 1999 American Control Conference, San Diego , June 1999.
  130. P. Y. Li, Adaptive Passive Velocity Field Control [pdf]
    Proceedings of the 1999 American Control Conference, San Diego, June 1999.
  131. P. Y. Li and S. Dianat, Robust Stabilization of Tone Reproduction Curves for Xerographic Processes [ps]
    1998 IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Sept., Trieste , 1998
  132.  P. Y. Li, Passive Control of Bilateral Teleoperated Manipulators [ps]
      Proceedings of the 1998 American Control Conference, June, Philladephia , PA.
  133.  M. Krucinski, C. Cloet, R. Horowitz, M. Tomizuka and P. Y. Li, Interobject Spacing Control and Controllability in a Manufacturing Transportation System
    I n Proceedings of the 1998 American Control Conference, June, Philladephia , PA.
  134.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Self-Optimizing Control   36th IEEE CDC, San Diego , pp.1228-1233, Dec 1997
  135.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Self-Optimzing Control: Application to Smart Exercise Machines [pdf.gz]
      Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, (CIRA'97) Monterey , CA July 1997.
  136.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Application of Passive Velocity Field Control Approach to Robot Contour Following Problems [pdf.gz]  35th IEEE CDC, Kobe , Japan 1996.
  137.  P. Y. Li, L. Alvarez and R. Horowitz, A Safe Velocity Tracking Controller for AHS Platoon Leaders 35th IEEE CDC, Kobe , Japan 1996.
  138.  L. Alvarez, R. Horowitz and P. Y. Li, A Vehicle Flow Controller for AHS
     35th IEEE CDC, Kobe , Japan 1996.
  139.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz,  Passive Velocity Field Control Approach to Robot Contour Following [ps.gz]
     In Proceedings of the 1996 Japan USA Symposium on Flexible Automation, July, 1996.
  140.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz,  Control of Smart Exercise Machines, Part I: Problem formulation and nonadaptive control [ps]
      In Proceedings of the IFAC 96, San Francisco , CA June 96
  141.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Control of Smart Exercise Machines, Part II: Self Optimizing Control [ps]
      In Proceedings of the IFAC 96, San Francisco , CA June 96
  142.  A Link Layer Vehicle Flow Control for the PATH AHS Architecture
      In Proceedings of the IFAC 96, San Francisco, CA June 96
  143.  P. Y. Li, R. Horowitz, L. Alvarez, J. Frankel and A. M. Robertson, Traffic Flow Stabilization In Proceedings of 1995 ACC, Seattle , WA June 95
  144.  J. Frankel, L. Alvarez, R. Horowitz, and P. Y. Li, Safety Orient Maneuvers for AVHS [ps.gz] In Proceedings of 1995 ACC, Seattle , WA June 95
  145. P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Passive Velocity Field Control of Mechanical Manipulators [ps] In Proceedings of the IEEE ICRA 95, Nagoya , Japan May 95
  146.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, On the Optimizing-Adaptive Control Problem
    In Proceedings of the 1994 ACC, Baltimore, MD June 94
  147.  P. Y. Li and R. Horowitz, Self Tuning Control of an Exercise Machine In Symposium on Mechatronics, ASME WAM, New Orleans , LA Nov 93
  148.  P. Y. Li, J. F. Shields, and R. Horowitz, Adaptive Control of an Exercise Machine 15th IEEE EMBS, San Diego , CA Oct 93
  149. R. Horowitz and P. Y. Li, Multitask Robot Learning 1992 ACC, Chicago , IL June 92
  150. P. Y. Li and Z. Ladin, Validation of a Mathematical Model of the Effect of Sole Elasticity Distribution on Pronation
    15th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Tempe , AZ 1990
  151.  P. Y. Li and Z. Ladin, Impact Impulse Analysis for a Two Link Kinematic Chain Running Model 12th IEEE EMBS, Philladelphia , PA , 1990
  152. P. Y. Li and Z. Ladin, An Energy Minimization Approach to the Design of Elastic Soles for Running Shoes 13th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, Burlington , VT 1989

Others:

  1. P. Y. Li, "Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PHEV) versus Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Comparison - Google Fleet Study".  In this study, the well-to-wheel efficiencies of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV) are compared. The conclusions are that PHEVs are not more efficient than EVs, and depending on the source of electricity, the carbon footprint of PHEVs can be higher than that of EV since present day's coal and other hydrocarbon fuels powered electric power stations are less efficient than an engine in a Hybrid Electric vehicle.


Last Updated 10/19/2016 by Perry Li