On Road Animal Inhalation Studies

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On Road Source Apportionment Studies


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Other Studies

Swanson, J., A. Ragatz, W. Watts, D. Kittelson and R. Winsor. 2009.

Nanoparticle Measurements Used to Detect an Engine Oil Fault Control Ring Failure.

Proc IMechE. Vol 223(8) Part D: J Automobile Engineering, p. 1071-1076. Link To Paper


     A cyclic variation in total particle number concentration was observed while making routine exhaust emission measurements. Many dilution and engine operating conditions were examined and, by sequentially shutting down individual cylinders, the problem was traced to cylinder 2. The engine was disassembled and piston 2's oil control ring was found to be fractured. Replacement of the ring eliminated the particle concentration fluctuation. This paper presents the results of experimental measurements made to determine the cause of the irregular emissions.

Ragatz, A. C., J. J. Swanson, D. B. Kittelson, and W. F. Watts. 2009.

Particle and Gaseous Emission Characteristics of a Formula SAE Race Car Engine.

SAE Tech. Paper Series 2009-01-1400, 8 pp. Link To Paper


     The focus of this work was the physical characterization of exhaust aerosol from the University of Minnesota Formula SAE team's engine. This was done using two competition fuels, 100 octane race fuel and E85. Three engine conditions were evaluated: 6000 RPM 75% throttle, 8000 RPM 50% throttle, and 8000 RPM 100% throttle. Dilute emissions were characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). E85 fuel produced more power and had lower particulate matter emissions at all test conditions, but more fuel was consumed.

Apple, J., D. Gladis, W. Watts, and D. Kittelson. 2009.

Measuring Diesel Ash Emissions and Estimating Lube Oil Consumption Using a High Temperature Oxidation Method.

SAE Tech. Paper Series 2009-01-1843, 10 p. Link To Paper


     Diesel engine ash emissions are composed of the noncombustible portions of diesel particulate matter derived mainly from lube oil, and over time can degrade diesel particulate filter performance. This paper presents results from a high temperature oxidation method (HTOM) used to estimate ash emissions, and engine oil consumption in real time. Atomized lubrication oil and diesel engine exhaust were used to evaluate the HTOM performance.
     Atomized fresh and used lube oil experiments showed that the HTOM reached stable particle size distributions and concentrations at temperatures above 700\mDC. The HTOM produced very similar number and volume weighted particle size distributions for both types of lube oils. The particle number size distribution was unimodal, with a geometric mean diameter of about 23 nm. The volume size distribution had a geometric volume mean diameter of about 65 nm.
     Inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the ash content of different lube oils, revealing the differences in elemental compositions of ash for a fresh lube oil and an used lube oil; the most notable changes were a 166% increase in Mg and a 194% increase in Fe concentrations. The mass penetration fraction of lube oil using the HTOM was compared to the oil ash concentrations found from the ICP-MS analysis and the results are discussed.
     The HTOM was also used to measure exhaust ash concentrations from a passenger car diesel engine during steady-state and transient engine conditions. Using known oil ash compositions the HTOM was used to estimate engine oil consumption rates from exhaust ash measurements.

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Last modified: 14 August 2009